Which was the world's richest empire in ancient times (1 AD to 1600 AD)?
译文起源：三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/46235.html 译者：Jessica.Wu
It all depends when in the period, what you define as China, India, Rome.... (see note below) and which metric you use, but on a GDP per capita basis (output per person), as borders moved and names changed, you get:
·1 - 600 AD - Rome (Italy)
·600 - 1200 AD - Islamic Caliphate(s) (Iraq, Turkey, Iran, ...)
·1200 - 1550 AD - Italy (But not an empire, at best an Italic League)
·1550 - 1850 AD - Netherlands (But not an empire, but largely the Dutch Republic)
Note: between 1AD and 1870 AD South Asia's, GDP per capita has never been greater than that of China, though between 1870 and 1977 it was, and largely unified as a constituent part of the British Empire, or as a Union of nations in the current Republic.
公元元年 - 600 ：罗马(意大年夜利)
公元600 - 1200 ：ysl王国(伊拉克、土耳其、伊朗、…)
公元1200 - 1550：意大年夜利(不是一个帝国,充其量是一个意大年夜利同盟)
公元1550 - 1850：荷兰(不是一个帝国,逾越荷兰共和国的大年夜局部地区)
Also have a read or the original source for the debate: World history by per capita GDP along with:
·How would the Roman empire and India's GDP compare in 1 AD?
·How did the Roman and Chinese Empires' GDP compare between 1 and 1000 AD?
Then have a play with the raw data on: Historical Statistics of the World Economy: 1-2008 AD - knoema.com
Or just grab it in Excel format here: Home Maddison
A few GDP Per Capita charts in different formats:
Note: The nation states of India and China are post WWII inventions, for a list of the numerous empires that have controlled part of the territory they now occupy, see: List of empires.